Mesothelioma biomarker candidates reveal tumor escape mechanism

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Mesothelioma biomarker candidates reveal tumor escape mechanism

| Oct 1, 2020 | Medical Malpractice |

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos fibers. However, the disease cannot be treated since it is only recognizable at an advanced stage. Additionally, the therapeutic strategies used to control other types of cancer cannot manage mesothelioma. To detect the disease at an early stage, biomarkers are required. Researchers in Texas are not aware of the molecular mechanisms that occur when you suffer the illness. Thus, once these mechanisms are understood, more targeted approaches in managing the disease will be developed.

Research to identify mesothelioma biomarkers

Researchers from the Sbarro Health Research Organization tried to address these urgent needs. The researchers analyzed how tiny RNA molecules that regulate gene expression express themselves. Microarray analysis was carried out to identify how the microRNAs expressed. A signature of 48 microRNAs was identified, expressed between the mesothelial tissue and the mesothelioma specimen. Subsequently, a subset of the microRNAs was studied, and the differential expression validated.

From this list of potential biomarkers, the researchers were able to distinguish normal cells from cancerous cells. MicroRNAs such as miR-145 that are resistant to chemotherapy and were associated with mesothelioma were identified. The researchers also studied the miR-320a since its family members had a deregulation trend even if they were in different chromosomes. Thus, there is an upstream mechanism that leads to dysregulation.

Results

The miR-320a targets PDL1, which plays a crucial role in the antitumoral immune response. miR-320a is a target for the p53 tumor suppressor. However, p53 is inactive in mesothelioma since its pathways are altered.

From the results, the researchers concluded that the inactivation of p53 contributes to the microRNA defective regulation. Subsequently, immunosuppressive features develop, and mesothelioma escapes discovery by one’s immune system.

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